Thursday, August 4, 2011

Comparison of Arab and Jewish Nobel Prize Winners

 Nobel Peace Prize winner and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel
The Jewish People and Israel – the Light unto 
Humanity and Nations

    Dr. Reuven Reuveni - Israel
August 4, 2011
Comparison of Arab and Jewish Nobel Prize Winners 

Arab/Islamic Nobel Prize Winners 
From a pool of 1.4 BILLION Muslims which are 20% of the world's population (2 out of every 10 people)
Muslims have won 7 Noble Prizes
(8 if you include Husain barak Obama)
1988 - Najib Mahfooz
1978 - Anwar El-Sadat
1994 - Yasser Arafat *
2003 - Shirin Ebadi
1999 - Ahmed Zewail
Abdus Salam 
  * NOTE: Norwegian, Kaare Kristiansen, was a member of the Nobel Committee. He resigned in 1994 to protest the awarding of a Nobel "Peace Prize" to Yasser Arafat, whom he correctly labeled a "terrorist." 

Jewish Nobel Prize Winners 
From a pool of 12 million Jews which are 0.2% of the World's Population (2 out of every 1,000 people), there are 165 Jews listed since 1905 as Noble Prize Winners!!!

Good to remember that Jews make up 0.2 percent of the world population, but 54 percent of the world chess champions, 27 percent of the Nobel physics laureates and 31 percent of the medicine laureates.
Read more in "Tel Aviv Cluster" by David Brooks and Gail Collins talk between columns on the NYT.
Jews make up 2 percent of the U.S. population, but 21 percent of the Ivy League student bodies, 26 percent of the Kennedy Center honorees, 37 percent of the Academy Award-winning directors, 38 percent of those on a recent Business Week list of leading philanthropists, 51 percent of the Pulitzer Prize winners for nonfiction.

Please read the book, “The Golden Age of Jewish Achievement”  by Steven L. Pease.  It lists some of the explanations people have given for this record of achievement. The Jewish faith encourages a belief in progress and personal accountability. It is learning-based, not rite-based.

Here they are one by one and according to their fields of contribution:


1910Adolf Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel 042.jpgPaul Heyse[9]Germany"as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[10]
1927Bergson-Nobel-photo.jpgHenri Bergson[9]France"in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"[11]
1958Boris Pasternak cropped.jpgBoris Pasternak[9]Soviet Union"for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[12]
1966Agnon.jpgShmuel Yosef Agnon[9]Israel"for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"[13]
Nelly Sachs 1966.jpgNelly Sachs[9]Germany"for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"[13]
1976Saul Bellow, 1990.jpgSaul Bellow[9]United States"for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"[14]
1978Isaac Bashevis Singer crop.jpgIsaac Bashevis Singer[9]United States"for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"[15]
1981Canetti 1970.jpgElias Canetti[9]United Kingdom"for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"[16]
1987Joseph Brodsky[9]United States"for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"[17]
1991Nadine Gordimer und David Grossman.jpgNadine Gordimer[9]South Africa"who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity"[18]
2002Imre Kertész (1929-) Hungarian writer II. by Csaba Segesvári.JPGImre Kertész[9]Hungary"for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"[19]
2004Elfriede jelinek 2004 small.jpgElfriede Jelinek[20]Austria"for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"[21]
2005Harold Pinter[22]United Kingdom"who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"[23]


1905Adolf von Baeyer (Nobel 1905).jpgAdolf von Baeyer[9]Germany"[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[24]
1906Henri Moissan.jpgHenri Moissan[25]France"[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[26]
1910Voit 168 Otto Wallach.jpgOtto Wallach[9]Germany"[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[27]
1915Richard Willstätter.jpgRichard Willstätter[9]Germany"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[28]
1918Fritz Haber.pngFritz Haber[9]Germany"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[29]
1943George de Hevesy.jpgGeorge de Hevesy[9]Hungary"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[30]
1961Melvin Calvin.jpgMelvin Calvin[9]United States"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[31]
1962Max Perutz[32]United Kingdom"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[33]
1972William Howard Stein[9]United States"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[34]
1977Ilya PrigogineBelgium"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[35]
1979Herbert C. BrownUnited States"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[36]
1980Paul Berg in 1980.jpgPaul Berg[9]United States"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[37]
Walter GilbertWalter Gilbert[9]United States"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[37]
1981Roald Hoffmann.jpgRoald Hoffmann[9]United States"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[38]
1982Aaron Klug[9]United Kingdom"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[39]
1985Jerome Karle.jpgJerome KarleUnited States"for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[40]
Herbert Hauptman - UB 2009.jpgHerbert A. HauptmanUnited States
1989Sidney Altman[9]Canada
United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[41]
1992Prof. Dr. Rudolph A. Marcus.jpgRudolph A. Marcus[9]United States"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[42]
1998Walter KohnWalter Kohn[9]United States"for his development of the density-functional theory"[43]
2004Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Ciehanover.jpgAaron CiechanoverIsrael"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[44]
Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Hershko.jpgAvram HershkoIsrael
Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Rose.jpgIrwin RoseUnited States
2006Roger.Kornberg.JPGRoger D. KornbergUnited States"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[45]
2008Martin Chalfie-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-4.jpgMartin Chalfie[46]United States"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP".[47]
2009AdaYonath.jpgAda YonathIsrael"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"[48]

[edit]Physiology or Medicine

1908Ilya Mechnikov (Nobel 1908).pngÉlie Metchnikoff[9]Russia"in recognition of their work on immunity"[49]
Paul Ehrlich.pngPaul Ehrlich[9]Germany
1914Robert Barany.jpgRobert Bárány[9]Austria"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[50]
1922Otto Fritz Meyerhof[9]Germany"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"[51]
1930LandsteinerWS.jpgKarl Landsteiner[9]Austria"for his discovery of human blood groups"[52]
1931Otto Heinrich Warburg[9] (of Jewish descent)Germany"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[53]
1936Otto Loewi 1955 Woods Hole MA.JPGOtto Loewi[9]Austria"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[54]
1944Joseph Erlanger[9]United States"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[55]
Herbert Spencer Gasser
1945Ernst Boris Chain.jpgErnst Boris Chain[9]United Kingdom"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[56]
1946Hermann Joseph Muller[9]United States"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"[57]
1947Gerty Theresa Cori.jpgGerty CoriUnited States"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[58]
1950Thadeus Reichstein ETH-Bib Portr 10137.jpgTadeusz Reichstein[9]Switzerland"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[59]
1952Selman Waksman NYWTS.jpgSelman Waksman[9]United States"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"[60]
1953Hans Adolf Krebs[9]United Kingdom"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[61]
Portrait of Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899-1986), Biochemist (2551001689).jpgFritz Albert Lipmann[9]United States"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[61]
1958Joshua Lederberg.jpgJoshua Lederberg[9]United States"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"[62]
1959Arthur Kornberg.jpgArthur Kornberg[9]United States"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[63]
1964Konrad Bloch.JPGKonrad Emil Bloch[9]United States"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"[64]
1965François Jacob[9]France"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[65]
André Michel Lwoff[9]
1967George Wald[9]United States"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[66]
1968MNirenberg.jpgMarshall Warren Nirenberg[9]United States"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[67]
1969Salvador E. Luria ca.1969.jpgSalvador Luria[9]United States"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"[68]
1970Axelrod01.jpgJulius Axelrod[9]United States"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[69]
Bernard Katz[9]United Kingdom
1972Gerald Edelman[9]United States"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[70]
1975DavidBaltimore2008.JPGDavid Baltimore[9]United States"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[71]
Howard Martin Temin[9]United States
1976Baruch Samuel Blumberg[9]United States"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[72]
1977Schally portrait.jpgAndrew SchallyUnited States"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"[73]
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow[9]United States"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[73]
1978Daniel Nathans[9]United States"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[74]
1980Baruj Benacerraf[9]United States"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[75]
1982John Robert VaneUnited Kingdom"for his discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"[76]
1984Milstein lnp.jpgCésar Milstein[9]Argentina
United Kingdom
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[77]
1985Mike Brown 2003.jpgMichael Stuart Brown[9]United States"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"[78]
Joe Goldstein.JPGJoseph L. Goldstein[9]United States
1986Stanley Cohen-Biochemist.jpgStanley Cohen[9]United States"for their discoveries of growth factors"[79]
Rita Levi Montalcini.jpgRita Levi-Montalcini[9]Italy
1988Nci-vol-8236-300 Gertrude Elion.jpgGertrude B. Elion[9]United States"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[80]
1989Varmus, Harold Elliot (1939).jpgHarold E. Varmus[9]United States"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[81]
1992Edmond H. FischerSwitzerland
United States
"for his discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"[82]
1994Alfred G. Gilman[9]United States"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[83]
Rodbell, Martin (1925-1998).jpgMartin Rodbell[9]
1997Prusiner 1.JPGStanley B. Prusiner[9]United States"for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection"[84]
1998Drfurchgott.jpgRobert F. Furchgott[9]United States"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[85]
2000Paul Greengard.jpgPaul Greengard[9]United States"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[86]
Eric Richard Kandel.jpgEric Kandel[9]United States
2002Sydney Brenner[9]United Kingdom"for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[87]
H. Robert Horvitz[9]United States
2004Richard AxelUnited States"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[88]
2006Andrew Fire, Stanford University.jpgAndrew FireUnited States"for his discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[89]


1907Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpgAlbert Abraham Michelson[9]United States"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[90]
1908G lippmann.jpgGabriel Lippmann[9]France"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[91]
1921Einstein1921 by F Schmutzer 4.jpgAlbert Einstein[9]Germany"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[92]
1922Niels Bohr.jpgNiels Bohr[9]Denmark"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[93]
1925James Franck.jpgJames Franck[9]Germany"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[94]
Gustav Hertz[9]Germany
1943Otto Stern[9]United States"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[95]
1944Isidor Isaac Rabi.jpgIsidor Isaac Rabi[9]United States"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[96]
1945Wolfgang Pauli young.jpgWolfgang Pauli[97]Austria"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[98]
1952Felix Bloch, Stanford University.jpgFelix Bloch[9]United States"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[99]
1954Max Born.jpgMax Born[9]United Kingdom"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[100]
1958Ilya Frank.jpgIlya FrankSoviet Union"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[101]
Igor Tamm[102]Soviet Union
1959Segre.jpgEmilio Gino Segrè[9]Italy"for their discovery of the antiproton"[103]
1960Donald Glaser.jpgDonald A. GlaserUnited States"for the invention of the bubble chamber"[104]
1961Robert Hofstadter.jpgRobert Hofstadter[9]United States"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[105]
1962Lev Landau[9]Soviet Union"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[106]
1963Wigner.jpgEugene Paul WignerUnited States"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[107]
1965Richard Feynman.pngRichard Feynman[9]United States"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[108]
Schwinger.jpgJulian Schwinger[9]United States
1967Hans Bethe.jpgHans Bethe[9]United States"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[109]
1969Murray Gell-Mann.jpgMurray Gell-Mann[9]United States"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[110]
1971Dennis Gabor[9]United Kingdom"for his invention and development of the holographic method"[111]
1972Leon CooperUnited States"for his jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[112]
1973Brian David Josephson.jpgBrian David Josephson[9]United Kingdom"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[113]
1975Mottelson,Ben 1963 Kopenhagen.jpgBen Roy Mottelson[9]Denmark"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[114]
1976Burton Richter - charm quark.jpgBurton Richter[9]United States"for his pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[115]
1978Arno Penzias.jpgArno Allan Penzias[9]United States"for his discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[116]
1979Sheldon Glashow at Harvard.jpgSheldon Lee Glashow[9]United States"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[117]
Steven-weinberg.jpgSteven Weinberg[9]United States
1988Leon M. Lederman.jpgLeon M. Lederman[9]United States"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[118]
Melvin Schwartz[9]United States
Jack-Steinberger-2008.JPGJack Steinberger[9]United States
1990Jerome Isaac Friedman[9]United States"for his pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[119]
1992CHARPAK Georges-24x50-2005 cropped.JPGGeorges CharpakFrance"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[120]
1995Martin Perl - tau.jpgMartin Lewis Perl[9]United States"for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[121]
Frederick Reines.jpgFrederick Reines[9]United States"for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[121]
1996David Morris Lee[9]United States"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[122]
Douglas Osheroff.jpgDouglas D. Osheroff[9]United States
1997Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.JPGClaude Cohen-Tannoudji[9]France"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"[123]
2000Zhores Alferov.jpgZhores Alferov[9]Russia"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[124]
2003Abrikosov in a lecture.jpgAlexei Alexeyevich AbrikosovRussia
United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[125]
Виталий Лазаревич Гинзбург.jpgVitaly GinzburgRussia
2004David Gross cropped.JPGDavid GrossUnited States"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[126]
H. David PolitzerUnited States
2005Roy Glauber Dec 10 2005.jpgRoy J. GlauberUnited States"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[127]


1911TMCasser.jpgTobias Michael Carel Asser[9]The Netherlands"Initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law at the Hague; Cabinet Minister; Lawyer"[128]
Alfred Herrmann Fried Foto.jpgAlfred Hermann Fried[9]Austria"Journalist; Founder of Die Friedenswarte"[128]
1968ReneCassin.JPGRené Cassin[9]France"President of the European Court for Human Rights"[129]
1973Henry Kissinger.jpgHenry A. Kissinger[9]United States"For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam War and a withdrawal of the American forces"[130][131]
1978Menachem Begin 2.jpgMenachem Begin[9]Israel"for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[132]
1986Elie Wiesel.jpgElie Wiesel[9]United States"Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[133]
1994Yitzhak Rabin (1986) cropped.jpgYitzhak Rabin[9]Israel"to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[134]
Shimon Peres World Economic Forum 2007.jpgShimon Peres[9]Israel
1995Josef Rotblat ID badge.pngJoseph RotblatUnited Kingdom
"for his efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[135]


1970Samuelson1950.jpgPaul Samuelson[9]United States"for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"
1971Simon Kuznets[9]United States"for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"[137]
1972Kenneth Arrow, Stanford University.jpgKenneth Arrow[9]United States"for his pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"[138]
1973Wassily LeontiefRussia
United States
"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"[139]
1975Leonid Kantorovich 1975.jpgLeonid Kantorovich[9]Russia
United States
"for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[140]
1976Friedman dinner.jpgMilton Friedman[9]United States"for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"[141]
1978HerbertSimon.jpgHerbert Simon[9]United States"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"[142]
1980Lawrence Klein[9]United States"for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"[143]
1985Franco Modigliani.jpgFranco Modigliani[9]Italy
United States
"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"[144]
1987Solow natmedal.jpgRobert Solow[9]United States"for his contributions to the theory of economic growth""[145]
1990Harry Markowitz[9]United States"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics""[146]
Merton MillerUnited States
1992GaryBecker-May24-2008.jpgGary Becker[9]United States"for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour""[147]
1993Robert William Fogel.jpgRobert Fogel[9]United States"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"[148]
1994John Harsanyi[9]Reinhard SeltenHungary
United States
"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"[149]
1997Myron Scholes 2008 in Lindau.pngMyron Scholes[9]Canada"for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"[150]
2001Joseph E. Stiglitz.jpgJoseph Stiglitz[9]United States"for his analyses of markets with asymmetric information"[151]
2002Daniel KAHNEMAN.jpgDaniel Kahneman[9]Israel
United States
"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"[152]
2005Aumann-1080b.jpgRobert Aumann[153]Israel
United States
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"[154]
2007Leonid Hurwicz.jpgLeonid Hurwicz[155][156][157]United States"For having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"[158]
05N3441 emaskin.jpgEric MaskinUnited States
Myerson roger b print.jpgRoger MyersonUnited States
2008Paul Krugman-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-8.jpgPaul Krugman[159]United States"for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"[160

Only four laureates have been forced by authorities to decline the Nobel Prize. Three of them were (non-Jewish) Germans, who were prohibited from accepting the prize by Adolf Hitler in 1938 and in 1939. The fourth was Boris Pasternak, a Russian Jew. Pasternak was named the winner of the prize for Literature in 1958. He initially accepted the award, but—after intense pressure from Soviet authorities—subsequently declined it. 

1910 - Paul Heyse 
1927 - Henri Bergson 
1958 - Boris Pasternak 
1966 - Shmuel Yosef Agnon 
1966 - Nelly Sachs 
1976 - Saul Bellow 
1978 - Isaac Bashevis Singer 
1981 - Elias Canetti 
1987 - Joseph Brodsky 
1991 - Nadine Gordimer 
2002 - Imre Kertesz 
World Peace 
1911 - Alfred Fried 
1911 - Tobias Asser 
1968 - Rene Cassin 
1973 - Henry Kissinger 
1978 - Menachem Begin 
1986 - Elie Wiesel 
1994 - Shimon Peres 
1994 - Yitzhak Rabin 
1995 - Joseph Rotblat 
1905 - Adolph Von Baeyer 
1906 - Henri Moissan 
1910 - Otto Wallach 
1915 - Richard Willstaetter 
1918 - Fritz Haber 
1943 - George Charles de Hevesy 
1961 - Melvin Calvin 
1962 - Max Ferdinand Perutz 
1972 - William Howard Stein 
1972 - C.B. Anfinsen 
1977 - Ilya Prigogine 
1979 - Herbert Charles Brown 
1980 - Paul Berg 
1980 - Walter Gilbert 
1981 - Ronald Hoffmann 
1982 - Aaron Klug 
1985 - Herbert A. Hauptman 
1985 - Jerome Karle 
1986 - Dudley R. Herschbach 
1988 - Robert Huber 
1989 - Sidney Altman 
1992 - Rudolph Marcus 
1998 - Walter Kohn 
2000 - Alan J. Heeger 
2004 - Irwin Rose 
2004 - Avram Hershko 
2004 - Aaron Ciechanover 
1970 - Paul Anthony Samuelson 
1971 - Simon Kuznets 
1972 - Kenneth Joseph Arrow 
1973 - Wassily Leontief 
1975 - Leonid Kantorovich 
1976 - Milton Friedman 
1978 - Herbert A. Simon 
1980 - Lawrence Robert Klein 
1985 - Franco Modigliani 
1987 - Robert M. Solow 
1990 - Harry Markowitz 
1990 - Merton Miller 
1992 - Gary Becker 
1993 - Rober Fogel 
1994 - John Harsanyi 
1994 - Reinhard Selten 
1997 - Robert Merton 
1997 - Myron Scholes 
2001 - George Akerlof 
2001 - Joseph Stiglitz 
2002 - Daniel Kahneman 
2005 - Robert (Israel) Aumann 
1908 - Elie Metchnikoff 
1908 - Paul Erlich 
1914 - Robert Barany 
1922 - Otto Meyerhof 
1930 - Karl Landsteiner 
1931 - Otto Warburg 
1936 - Otto Loewi 
1944 - Joseph Erlanger 
1944 - Herbert Spencer Gasser 
1945 - Ernst Boris Chain 
1946 - Hermann Joseph Muller 
1950 - Tadeus Reichstein 
1952 - Selman Abraham Waksman 
1953 - Hans Krebs 
1953 - Fritz Albert Lipmann 
1958 - Joshua Lederberg 
1959 - Arthur Kornberg 
1964 - Konrad Bloch 
1965 - Francois Jacob 
1965 - Andre Lwoff 
1967 - George Wald 
1968 - Marshall W. Nirenberg 
1969 - Salvador Luria 
1970 - Julius Axelrod 
1970 - Sir Bernard Katz 
1972 - Gerald Maurice Edelman 
1975 - David Baltimore 
1975 - Howard Martin Temin 
1976 - Baruch S. Blumberg 
1977 - Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 
1977 - Andrew V. Schally 
1978 - Daniel Nathans 
1980 - Baruj Benacerraf 
1984 - Cesar Milstein 
1985 - Michael Stuart Brown 
1985 - Joseph L. Goldstein 
1986 - Stanley Cohen [& Rita Levi-Montalcini] 
1988 - Gertrude Elion 
1989 - Harold Varmus 
1991 - Erwin Neher 
1991 - Bert Sakmann 
1993 - Richard J. Roberts 
1993 - Phillip Sharp 
1994 - Alfred Gilman 
1994 - Martin Rodbell 
1995 - Edward B. Lewis 
1997 - Stanley B. Prusiner 
1998 - Robert F. Furchgott 
2000 - Eric R. Kandel 
2002 - Sydney Brenner 
2002 - Robert H. Horvitz 
1907 - Albert Abraham Michelson 
1908 - Gabriel Lippmann 
1921 - Albert Einstein 
1922 - Niels Bohr 
1925 - James Franck 
1925 - Gustav Hertz 
1943 - Gustav Stern 
1944 - Isidor Issac Rabi 
1945 - Wolfgang Pauli 
1952 - Felix Bloch 
1954 - Max Born 
1958 - Igor Tamm 
1958 - Il'ja Mikhailovich 
1958 - Igor Yevgenyevich 
1959 - Emilio Segre 
1960 - Donald A. Glaser 
1961 - Robert Hofstadter 
1962 - Lev Davidovich Landau 
1963 - Eugene P. Wigner 
1965 - Richard Phillips Feynman 
1965 - Julian Schwinger 
1967 - Hans Albrecht Bethe 
1969 - Murray Gell-Mann 
1971 - Dennis Gabor 
1972 - Leon N. Cooper 
1973 - Brian David Josephson 
1975 - Benjamin Mottleson 
1976 - Burton Richter 
1978 - Arno Allan Penzias 
1978 - Peter L Kapitza 
1979 - Stephen Weinberg 
1979 - Sheldon Glashow 
1988 - Leon Lederman 
1988 - Melvin Schwartz 
1988 - Jack Steinberger 
1990 - Jerome Friedman 
1992 - Georges Charpak 
1995 - Martin Perl 
1995 - Frederick Reines 
1996 - David M. Lee 
1996 - Douglas D. Osheroff 
1997 - Claude Cohen-Tannoudji 
2000 - Zhores I. Alferov 
2003 - Vitaly Ginsburg 
2003 - Alexei Abrikosov 

References and further research:

Yerushalayim Shel Zahav: A Tribute to the Golden City